Category : Performance Tuning

Query Performance Tuning – General Guidelines

Query performance tuning – Introduction

Query performance tuning is a process of improving system performance to make it faster and more scalable. It is a creative and iterative process which has a clear and well-defined objective. To achieve this goal, we have to follow certain defined steps.

Why we need this

Enterprise data changes frequently over time, which may impact the performance of existing queries. In most of the cases, a slight change in the index or in the query can improve the performance of the query significantly. In such cases, the improvement in performance can be much better than a CPU or memory upgrade.

How to tune a query

Performance tuning process has certain steps to follow in a defined way to achieve the clearly defined objective.

Query Performace Tuning - General Guidelines - Flow chart

Query performance tuning

In the above flow chart, you see that we begin by setting objective, followed by getting the current performance … More

Count of total spaces in a string in SQL Server – Various methods 6

In this post we are going to find the total number of spaces in a given string. I have a string which contains spaces at multiple places and i just want to count them all. We can achieve this in various ways. Here, i am sharing some of these methods. Why i am doing this in various ways and sharing with you is just to show you the performance of different approaches of problem solving and also to share some interesting tricks to solve this problem in different manners. I am not going to cover all the possible ways to solve this problem and in fact you can achieve this in some other ways too. In case you want to share your own method, I welcome it you all to share this in comment section of this post.

Create a demo table as below and then put some demo data … More

Indexed Views in SQL Server

Before having a discussion on “Indexed views in SQL Server”, let’s talk about simple view first.

A view is a virtual table which contains a SELECT statement to be executed when this view is called. It does not store any physical data and processes the data at run time. This can be used as a table and security principals can be applied on it. So instead of a table, a view can be exposed to the user. Using views, we can also take advantage of exposing only some columns of the given table instead of all columns, which increases the security. But in case of a view, each time it’s called, query inside the view gets executed.

Now come to the point of discussion of this post, an indexed view is a type of view which can materialize it’s data and instead of getting data by querying the underlying tables … More

Index Join in sql server 1

Lets explore the topic “Index Join in sql server” starting with “what is index join?”. Index join is a technique which uses an index intersection with two or more indexes to fulfill a query completely. If a table has multiple small index instead of a large covering index, the optimizer can choose index intersection on these small indexes to satisfy a query. In index intersection, it has to perform logical reads on all the indexes being used to serve the query.

If the querying table is large and  it has multiple narrow indexes instead of one wide index, index intersection can be used by sql server to fetch the entire data to be returned.


Create a table as below;

EmpName VARCHAR(100),
EmpAddress VARCHAR(500),
EmpContact VARCHAR(15),
EmpPinCode VARCHAR(15)

Now we have created a table and as per the next step, we have to … More

Clustered Vs NonClustered indexes (When to choose which one)

In this topic we are going to compare clustered indexes with nonclustered indexes with their usage and performance and will also discuss some points regarding the topic “when to choose which one”.  Clustered Vs NonClustered indexes is an old topic and you can get many article written so far. But in this post I will cover the definitions, structure of indexes, syntax of clustered and nonclustered indexes and the most interesting part is “when to choose which one”. So lets explore clustered and nonclustered indexes with “When to use Clustered vs NonClustered indexes” in deep.

Clustered index

As we know that a Clustered indexes sorts and stores the data rows in the table or view based on their key values. These are the columns included in the index definition. And the most important thing is we can have only one clustered index per table, because the data rows themselves can … More

Query Execution Flow Architecture (SQL Server)

In this article, we are going to discuss the SQL Server’s query execution flow architecture. When a query gets submitted to SQL Server, it goes through multiple steps before final output. We will discuss all these steps of “Query Execution Flow” starting from query submission to getting output.

As we all know that SQL Server has various components to perform various tasks on the given query. Each component performs some operation and pushes its output to the next component in the pipeline.

Lets understand the query execution flow architecture of DML statements. DDL and DCL statements do not follow optimization steps and gets submitted to storage engine directly after parsing step.

SQL Server Engine Architecture:

Below are the major components of SQL Server;

  1. Relation Engine
    1. Parser
    2. Alzebrizer
    3. Query Optimizer
  2. Storage Engine

Just have a look on the below image and then read the below details carefully;

Query Execution Flow

Query Execution Flow

As … More

Nested Loop, Merge and Hash Joins in SQL Server

In this article, i will introduce the internal join techniques, which sql server uses to perform various joins internally also known as Nested Loop, Merge and Hash Joins. These types are not directly exposed to us but we can use them as a query hint. These are also known as physical joins in SQL Server. So lets explore this topic  together “Nested Loop, Merge and Hash Joins in SQL Server”.

In our queries, simply we write as below;

From AdventureWorks2012 Database:

USE AdventureWorks2012

SELECT e.[BusinessEntityID]
FROM [HumanResources].[Employee] e
INNER JOIN [Person].[Person] p
ON p.[BusinessEntityID] = e.[BusinessEntityID]

Now its a job of sql server to create an appropriate plan for the query, execute it and return the result set to the caller. SQL Server has multiple components to perform this series of tasks including query parsing, creating query tree, creating binary plan and after … More